Habitat and Population – Ranthambore tiger Reserve
Having originated in Siberia as suggested by fossil evidence, the tiger found its best home in the Indian subcontinent. It is a truly Asian Animals and science recognizes eight sub species two of which (the Caspian and Balinese) are already extinct. The other six are the Siberian, Chinese, Indo-Chinese, Indian, Sumatran, and Javan. Body size diminishes as they distribution advance from the cold Siberian scrub thickets to the multi-tiered evergreen forests of java and Sumatra. On the Indian subcontinent the tiger is at home in a variety of environmental situation from the high- altitude, cold, coniferous, Himalayan forests to the steaming mangrove of Sundabans delta, from the swampy reedlands of the terai to the rugged scorched hills of the Indian peninsula and from the lush, wet evergreen forest of the northeast and the scrub-thorn arid forest of Ranthambore Tiger Reserve Rajasthan
An estimate placed the Population of tiger in India at turn of 19th centaury 40,000. While this could be an exaggeration, the present plight of the tiger became evident when in 1972 an all India tiger census revealed that a population of only 1800 had survived. The history of decline of the tiger is the pathetic story of the shrinkage and ravaging of the Indian wilderness pressed forward by the thoughtless onslaughts of demographics pressure that followed the prompting of immediate expediency and failed to take account of doubt full sustainability of changes land use.
The hunter of yesteryear regarded the tiger as symbol of India’s wilderness its savage’s beauty and might and its ability to melt into the forest like phantom, not only whetted the hunter’s spirit of adventure but also provided the base for countless juicy shikar stories. But ecologically also the tiger justifies itself as reflecting in its own level of welfare the health of the country’s wilderness. The tiger is the ultimate consumer in the complex food web in many of the forest ecosystems rests on the micro- organisms that decompose the plant and animal residues to form humus The diverse vegetation so supported is the food of a thriving community of herbivorous insects, birds and mammals and also help to conserve the soil and enhance water flow. Among the terminal carnivorous user of this productivity, the tiger stands at the head conservation of the tiger in it natural environment can be achieved only by total conservation of the wilderness based on ecosystem approach, as has been established by India’s Projects Tiger. Truly therefore the index of success as a whole in conservation of its wilderness
Fortunately spurred on the Project tiger India is now involved in as massive conservation effort covering over 300 nationals parks and sanctuaries according for over 12 percents areas harbour the tiger thanks to these measure, according to the all India Tiger census of 1984 their number has gone up to 4000 .